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PLA Air Defence RadarsTechnical Report APA-TR-2009-0103
Updated July, November, 2009
Updated January, April, 2010
Updated April, 2012
Text © 2009 - 2012 John Wise
Text, Line Art © 2009 Carlo Kopp
Excerpted from Chinese Radars
The H-200 Passive ESA (PESA) engagement radar used with the KS-1A SAM system is representative of the new generation of indigenous Chinese military radars. It is modelled on the Patriot's MPQ-53 engagement radar.
Production HT-233 PESA engagement radar on the 10 x 10 Taian TAS-5380 series chassis (© 2009, Bradley Huang).
This is the Chinese derivative of the Russian 30N6E1 Tomb Stone used to detect and track targets, and control the launch of the S-300PMU1 / SA-20 Gargoyle air defence missile. In the Chinese case, however, the HT-233 is also associated with the HQ-10, HQ-15, HQ-9 / FD-2000 or HQ-9 / FT-2000 surface-to-air Anti Radiation Missile. The latter was a combined Israeli/Chinese missile designed to take out the stand-off jammers which threaten SAM target designation radars. The parameter set is likely to be similar to that of 30N6E1 which it emulates.
It is reported that the PLAAF air defence forces based in Fujian Province near the Taiwan Strait, are equipped with the FT-2000 and Russian-made S-300PMU1 SAMs acquired between 1991 and 1998.
An FT-2000 battalion can function alone where it would seek its targets with ESM systems, but more commonly it is anticipated to be part of an S-300 detachment.
Little is known about the radar other than it may function in G-band, probably between 5.2 and 5.9 GHz a sub-band for which production components are readily available. From recent descriptions, the antenna would most likely appear to be a passive phased array employing some 3,000 ferrite phase shifters (the 30N6 uses ~10,000 elements). It has mechanical scan in azimuth and electronic beam steering in azimuth/elevation, like the 30N6E1, up to 65° off aperture boresight, and can track up to 50 targets simultaneously.
It is possibly that a variant of this radar,
referred to by NATO as TOMB STONE, is installed in Type 051C LANZHOU
class destroyers. S-300PMU1
/ SA-20 and FT-2000 systems are deployed around Beijing and at
Longtian, near Fuzhou, facing Taiwan. They are also deployed near the
coastal cities of Xiamen in Fujian Province and Shantou in
Production configurations of the radar is
deployed on the 10
x 10 Taian TAS5501 chassis, based on the Russian MAZ-543 vehicle.
Developmental configuration of HT-233 PESA engagement radar on 8 x 8 Taian TAS-5380.
Production HT-233 configuration on a 10 x 10 Taian TAS5501 chassis. This version includes an IFF array across the top of the primary aperture, and also shows the 30N6E1 style primary aperture and space feed well. Below display models of this variant (© 2009, Bradley Huang).
Deployed HQ-9 battery. Above, self propelled YLC-2V to the left with its three support vehicles, in the background a HT-233 battery engagement radar. Below, transloader in the foreground, HT-233 to the right.
The SJ-231 is an alternate radar for the KS-1A/HQ-12 SAM system, based on the HT-233 PESA antenna and cabin design. Cited performance is virtually identical to the H-200. Unlike the towed H-200, the SJ-231 is self propelled, but unlike the HT-233 it is split across a pair of 6 x 6 or 8 x 8 vehicles.
The antenna on this radar is common to a HT-233, but the configuration is split across two 6 x 6 trucks.
H-200 engagement radar and KS-1A TEL. The H-200 is semi-mobile, but with further evolution could qualify as mobile (© 2009, Bradley Huang).
In 2000 the KS-1A was promoted as a new air defence missile, supplanting the earlier SA-2 copy known as the KS-1 (Kaishan-1, refer SJ-202).
A ‘medium-to-high altitude, long-range SAM guidance station’ is how this radar is presented and it is believed to be a Chinese reverse engineered copy of the American AN/MPQ-53 Patriot radar. This being the case, the H-200 can be expected to function in G-bands, offering integrated electronic sector surveillance, target detection (TD), target tracking (TT), Identification Friend & Foe (IFF), and missile guidance (MG) functionality.
The antenna face comprises surveillance, IFF, target illumination and data transmission elements, and will offer phase steered target detection over an approximate 90º sector and tracking over a somewhat wider sector, but less than 160º. Reported capability is as follows:
Target detection & tracking ranges:
Max detection range: ≥120km @ 8 km altitude ≥50km @ 0.1km alt
Max stable tracking: ≥90km @ 8 km alt ≥45km @ 0.1km alt
Target characteristics: RCS: 2m2
Max target velocity: 750m/s (2.18 Mach)
Manoeuvre overload: 5.5g
Tracking capacity: Accurate tracking 3 targets; Monitoring 3 targets; Guidance 6 missiles; Guidance error: ≤50m
Set-up time ≤30 mins Tear-down time ≤20 mins qualifying the radar as semi-mobile.
Note 1: The KS-1 missile is usually associated with the SJ-202, whereas the KS-1A is being associated with the H-200 / KS-1A phased array.
Note 2: Antenna is very similar to that of BL904. A deployed example of a H-200 / KS-1A phased array radar can be seen at 43º 56’ 57.18” North, 87º 40’ 25.49” East, surrounded by six probable KS-1A missile launchers.
The H-200 is modelled on the MPQ-53 and 30N6E1 with a space feed arrangement, but using a simple horn rather than lens arrangement.
GIN SLING B is the NATO name for this engagement radar which appears to be a Chinese version of the old Soviet SNR-75 FAN SONG radar, (see also SJ-202) which is deployed with the SA-2 Guideline or KS-1 SAMs. It comprises a number of radiating elements.
There are two E/F-band Lewis scanners. These are believed to be the azimuth and elevation air search elements, although this radar would not normally function in isolation, and would usually receive target prompts from any one of a variety of volumetric search radars.
An F-band element is possibly used for target tracking whilst G-band elements are for missile guidance.
An I-band element reportedly has a range only (RO) function for accurate range measurement whilst a D-band element may have an IFF application.
ZD-2(B) is the designator given to the complete missile guidance station associated with the HQ-2B missile, whilst 2FA(B) is the radar transmitter/receiver sub-assembly.
The RF and PRF/PRI value suffixes (refer book) imply their linkage during transmission. G2 may represent a second transmission source with subtly different parameters, to reduce the probability of mutual interference if they operated in close proximity.
The Lewis Scan search technique combines the output of two separate assemblies that are set at 90° to each other.
The RF feeds rotate independently to achieve horizontal and vertical scans respectively, over a narrow sector at a medium data rate, usually between 10 and 25 Hertz and one source has suggested a rate between 15.5 and 17 Hz This system is ageing and is not included in the CRIA 2004 list of indigenously supplied equipment (refer book).
However, whilst it might still be materially supported, it is probably out of production and due for replacement.
In the meantime its major attributes appear to have been retained in the visually less sophisticated SJ-202 (see separate entry), which is being promoted for export.
This radar has been exported to Albania, Iran, North Korea and Pakistan.
SJ-202 Gin Sling A.
The SJ-202 is a fire control radar and is reported by Taiwan to be associated with the KAISHAN-1 (KS-1) SAM, although is may also be deployed for use with the HongQi-2 (HQ-2B/J) and SA-2 SAM detachments, where the latter still exist.
It appears to be an indigenous development of the system known generically to NATO as GIN SLING (see also separate entry for 2FA(B) / GIN SLING B), out of the Russian FAN SONG system to which it has very similar physical attributes and, therefore may exhibit similar transmission parameters, particularly as it appears to deploy identical LEWIS scan tracking antennas in both the horizontal and vertical planes.
In this respect, although variously reported so to be, it is not a phased-array radar. The Lewis scanners are anticipated to function in the 10~25 Hertz range, and other parameters may be similar to those of GIN SLING B.
A 2004 display model of the SJ-202 Gin Sling A.
Type 341 radar.
The HQ-61 Surface to Air Missile system is derived from the Selenia Aspide, itself a derivative of the US AIM-7 Sparrow. The SAM is available in naval and land based air defence variants. The land based variant uses the Type 571 acquisition radar, a derivative of the Soviet P-15 Flat Face, and a CW tracking and illumination radar. The latter has not been seen in the West, but its naval variants have and are known as the Type 341 RICE LAMP and Type 342 FOG LAMP.
Type 341 Fire Control System - this ageing I-band fire control radar is reminiscent of HAWK SCREECH a Soviet shipborne fire control system of the 1960s and 1970s and it is suspected that Type 341 can probably trace it's origin to that period.
Originally widely fitted in JIANGHU, LUDA, JIANGWEI frigates for the control and direction of HQ-61 missile firings, it has since been replaced in many installations by Type 347G RICE BOWL in Chinese vessels, but not in exported hulls such as the Type 053HT CHAO PHRAYA class in Thailand.
It may still also be installed in some other older hulls where it supports either the twin 37mm or 57mm general-purpose guns although it appears to have been removed from the Thai Navy’s HUDONG class replenishment tanker.
Below the parabolic dish there is a longitudinal antenna-like array. The application is unknown but could be either an I-band, end-fed search array for which it is about the right size assuming that the director can rotate on its pedestal -or more likely it may have an IFF-like function.
Type 342 Fire Control Radar - this H/I-bands radar shares some physical similarities with the old Soviet OWL SCREECH fire control system.
Known in NATO as FOG LAMP, it is currently installed in JINGWEI I class frigates and is used as the target tracker for the HQ-61 surface-air-missile (SAM) systems in that hull.
This radar was also fitted in JIANGDONG class frigates, since replaced by later versions of JIANGWEI I.
It is believed that Type 342 might be nearing its demise in the PLAN. There are some similarities with Type 313, which is an I-band system originally developed in the late 1980s for land based and naval applications.
Although reported as an H/I band radar it is considered to function within the range indicated because H-band is preserved specifically for satellite related activities.
There is a single web record of a Type 342C but no details about this assumed emitter have been found. However, based on precedent this could be a land based mobile variant.
A HQ-61 battery launching a weapon.
LY-60 / HQ-64 Engagement Radar (image © 2009, Zhenguan Studio).
Very little has been disclosed to date on the HQ-64/LY-60 engagement radar, with the system first being displayed publicly in late 2008 (above). This radar is primarily a Continuous Wave X-band illuminator for the monopulse semi-active homing LY-60 missile round, a reverse engineered Aspide Mk.1 (AIM-7 derivative). The simplicity of the fixed single horn feed makes it unlikely that this radar includes a monopulse precision angle tracking capability often seen in Russian CW tracker/illuminator designs.
The HQ-7 family of SAMs are derivatives of the reverse engineered Thomson CSF Crotale.
The HQ-7 is a Chinese clone of the French Thales/Thomson CSF Crotale SAM. During the 1970s the French supplied samples of the Crotale which was promptly reverse engineered. The cloned Crotale has been built in two configurations, a high mobility variant for PLA Army units on a 4 x 4 scout vehicle, and a less mobile PLA-AF air field defence system, using either a trailer or a truck platform. A naval variant as also been developed.
A four round elevating tube launcher turret is used, mounting the Ku-band Automatic Command to Line Of Sight monopulse radar dish antenna. Export variants are the FM-80 and improved FM-90 with a FLIR tracker and longer ranging missiles.
The naval HQ-7 installations on the Lua, Luhu, Luhia and Jiangwai II classes employ the Type 345 engagement radar, believed to be a reverse engineered Thomson-CSF Castor 2J/C.
If the Chinese copy of the Castor 2J/C is faithful then it will have pulse compression, velocity discrimination filters, frequency agility to enable clutter de-correlation and a passive tracking capability. System employs Doppler tracking with a first blind speed of 1,000m/sec.
Maximum airborne target tracking range is given as 40km. Antenna beamwidth is reported to be 0.67º with 43 dB of gain across a stabilized elevation of -25º~+85º. Peak power is given at 30kW with an antenna gain of 43.0dB.
HQ-7FS engagement radar towed.
HQ-7FS/FM-80 engagement radar on 4 x 4 TELAR.
HQ-7FS/FM-90 engagement radar on 6 x 6 TELAR (image © 2009, Zhenguan Studio).
Type 345 Crotale engagement radar (image © 2009, Zhenguan Studio).
The LD-2000 SPAAG/SPAAGM is intended for point defence of fixed ground sites against low flying rotary and fixed wing threats, and has significant growth potential as a Counter-PGM (C-PGM) and Counter-RAM (C-RAM) terminal defence system. The design employs two radars, a TR-47 series engagement radar for the gun mount, and an acquisition radar mounted on a telescoping mast.
NORINCO have confirmed that the tracking radar operates in J-band, estimated between 15.7 and 17.3 GHz, with a maximum cited range of 9 km. This would imply a maximum PRF of around 16,000 pps. There is also a coupled TV and IR tracker system on the weapon, that was used for acceptance trials, which were apparently successful. The acquisition radar functions in I-band, estimated between 8.8 and 9.7 GHz.
Following the trials, in an original format vehicle, it is now being offered for export.
As can be seen from numerous picture images, the I-band acquisition radar has now been integrated into the main LD-2000 combat vehicle (CV). There appears not to be an Intelligence and Communications Vehicle (ICV) any more, which gives the CV more freedom. The I-band acquisition radar also has a new reflector with a dual horn feed, for improved vertical coverage, and a new turning motor which might imply a complete new I-band system.
According to Christopher F. Foss in JDW 25Nov09 p27; the gun is a Type 730B 30mm 7-barrel Gatling with a max rate of fire of 4,200 rounds/min, over an effective range of 2.5 ~ 3.5 km. The weapon is loaded with 1,000 rounds, enough, apparently, for about 48 potential target engagements. As reported originally in the Chinese radars text, the gun is capable of firing armour-piercing discarding sabot (APDS), high explosive incendiary (HEI) and target practice (TP) rounds.
The limitation of the existing LD-2000 design is in its acquisition radar, which is not suitable for high speed low radar cross section targets, especially flown along steep trajectories. This precludes the use of the current LD-2000 configuration in C-RAM and C-PGM roles. The TR-47 series tracking radar has been used for naval shipboard defence applications and is claimed to be effective against Mach 2 low signature sea skimming threats, making it viable for land based C-RAM and C-PGM roles. The principal adaptation required to make the LD-2000 a highly capable C-RAM/C-PGM system is integration with a suitable acquisition radar design, such as the SLC-2 or newer Type 704 series counter-battery radars, for a narrower C-PGM role an existing air defence phased array such as the H-200 would be suitable.
TR-47G Engagement Radar
Export Desig: TR47G
Other Desigs: TR47C, Type 47G
RF (MHz) 8,800 ~ 9,600
RF Agility 700 MHz
PRF (pps) -
PRI (μsecs) -
PD (μsecs) 0.3 ~ 0.4
ST Monopulse - Circular -
Beamwidth (H & V) 2º
Gain ≥ 37dB
Bearing ≤ 1mrad
Elevation ≤ 1 mrad
Range ≤ 5 m
Peak power 120-150 kW
Noise Factor ≤9 dB
System reaction time ≤ 3s
MTI improvement factor ≥ 25dB
The existing acquisition radar is a low cost design suitable for airborne battlefield threats, but not the more challenging C-RAM and C-PGM roles.
Naval variants of the Type 703 are direct equivalents to the European Goalkeeper CIWS.
Comparison of PLA search and acquisition radar performance. The Russian Protivnik GE and Gamma DE are included for reference (C. Kopp)
|Other Desigs:||High Guard|
||NRIET / CEIEC / CETC|
|RF (MHz)||1,240 ~ 1,400|
|SP (sec / Hz)||secs|
This radar is carried in the 2004 CRIA listing of Chinese indigenous products.
This is a fully coherent, 3D radar with a low side-lobe, planar, phased array antenna.
The radar may be used for civil and friendly air traffic management, detection of hostile aircraft and, as in the illustration, it may have an IFF sub-system integrated to determine the friendliness of targets in flight.
information (2004) states that the JL3D-90A employs a radio frequency
(RF) agile transmitter with a klystron amplifier chain and a low-noise
linear receiver using digital pulse compression techniques to achieve
long-range detection with good target discrimination. Adaptive digital
signal processing is employed with comprehensive BITE.
The receiver’s dynamic range is given two different value in two brochures, one each from JESE and CEIEC
Monopulse sum/difference height measurement is employed with automatic target extraction and adaptive signal processing.
Target processing capacity is 100 tracks for every antenna scan (10secs).
The antenna cover diagram for a probability of detection of 80% against a radar cross section of 2m2 is illustrated, whilst the processing and display cabinets are shown below.
Target detection data:
JY-11 Specifications: (Pd=80, Pf=10-6, RCS 2m2)
||2.7 - 3.4 GHz
0º ~ 30º
|Azimuth:||0º ~ 360º|
|Peak power output: First sidelobe level:||13.5 kW
JY-11B Specifications: (Pd=80, Pf=10-6, RCS 2m2)
|Target detection data:
0º ~ 35º
|Azimuth||0º ~ 360º|
Height accuracy: (≤100km)
Withdrawal: 10 mins / 4 persons
Transportability: Road, rail, sea or air
The JYL-1 radar is carried in the 2004 CRIA listing of Chinese indigenous products.
The JYL-1 is a long-range 3D surveillance radar typical of those assets that might be found in a modern air defence network.
It functions in the E/F-band region and might be used as either a military or commercial asset for air traffic control and management purposes.
(Pd=80%, Pf=10-6, SW1, RCS=2m2)
Azimuth 0º ~ 360º
Elevation: 0º ~ 25º
Search range; 320km
Height: 600m @ 200km
MTBF: ≥ 800hrs
MTTR: ≤ 0.5 hrs
Operating frequency: E/F-band
Coverage: (RCS=2m2, Pd=80%, Pfa=10-6,)
|3 ~ 150 km
0º ~ 40º
|Peak power:||180 kW|
Set up time:
The specific features claimed by NRIET are:
High mobility, rapid deployment, Good low altitude detection performance, Excellent ECCM capability, Fully coherent solid-state transmitter, Low side-lobe antenna, Dual channel receiver redundancy, Digital signal processor, Excellent clutter rejection, Automatic hydraulic levelling, Automatic north finding with GPS.
The model (refer book) demonstrates the non-demountable 6-wheel variant designated YLC-6M (M = mobile -assumed) that was shown in Beijing in 2004.
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